[深化认知] 一、人称代词的四点注意 1．人称代词有主格和宾格之分，主格在句中通 常作主语，宾格在句中作宾语、表语和同位语等成分。
主格 I you he she it we you they 宾格 me you him her it us you them
Tom is a student. He works very hard. Tom 是一名学生，他学习非常努力。
He has a dog to keep him company. 他有一条狗陪伴他。
The students must be made to understand how important each subject is to them.(them 指代
the students) 必须使学生明白每门功课对他们来说多么
—I'd like to go to climb the mountain this
weekend. —Me too. ——这个周末我想去爬山。 ——我也想去。
What! Me (to) play chess with him? No! 什么！让我和他下国际象棋？不要！
4．在比较级的句子中，than, as 后用主格、 宾格皆可。
To tell the truth, Lucy is more qualified for the job than she/her.
Not having heard of it before, Tom is as surprised as he/him.
二、物主代词的四大常识 1．物主代词分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主 代词，形容词性物主代词在句中通常作定语，名词性物 主代词在句中可作主语、宾语和表语等成分。
形容词性 物主代词 名词性物 主代词
my our his her its their your
The students are doing their homework. 学生们在做作业。
Your room is big while mine is small. 你的房间大，而我的房间小。
2．形容词性物主代词不与 a, an, this, that,
these, some, any, several, no, each, such, another
a friend of mine
each sister of his 他的每一个姐姐
3．介词＋the＋身体部位，此处不能用形容 词性物主代词代替 the。
The policewoman took the thief by the arm. 那个女警察抓住了小偷的胳膊。
4．当物主代词与 all 和 both 连用时，必须放在 all 和 both 之后。
With all their homework finished, the children
went home happily. 做完所有的作业后，孩子们高高兴兴地回家了。
三、反身代词的三种句法功能 反 身 代 词 包 括 oneself, himself, herself,
itself, themselves, yourself, yourselves, myself, ourselves，在句中可作宾语、表语和同位语等 成分。
1．作宾语 (1)常用在 to, by, for, of, in, between, among 等介词后。
You shouldn't keep the story to yourself. 你不应该独享这个故事。(to oneself“独自享用”)
You shouldn't leave the child by himself at home. 你不应把孩子独自留在家里。(by oneself“独自”)
One should not live only for oneself. 人不应该单为自己而活。(for oneself“为自己”)
We don't need to call him; he will wake up of himself. 我们没必要叫他，他自己会醒的。(of oneself“自动 地”)
(2)用来构成固定搭配 devote oneself to dress oneself enjoy oneself boast oneself help oneself to
致力于 自己穿衣 过得愉快 自夸 随便吃，随便用
hide oneself make yourself at home say to oneself seat oneself teach oneself come to oneself behave oneself
把自己藏起来 不拘束 心里想 坐下 自学 苏醒 表现得体， 有礼貌 致力于
2．作表语、同位语 用于 be, feel, seem, look 等后作表语，表示身体或精 神处于正常状态；用作同位语时，主要用于加强被修饰 词的语气，可紧跟在被修饰名词后或句末。
I am not feeling myself today, not serious, though. 我今天不太舒服，但不严重。
(2013·全国卷Ⅱ写作)I made them myself with red
silk threads, cloth and other materials. 它们是我自己用红丝线、布条和其他材料制成的。
四、几组常见代词的辨析 1．both, all, either, any, neither, none
都 任何 都不
both either neither
三者或三者以上 all any none
(2013·山东高考单选)I've lived in New York and
Chicago, but don't like either of them very much. 我在纽约和芝加哥住过，但它们中的任何一个我
Because Henry and Mark had to work, neither of them came yesterday.
My brother would like to buy a good watch but none was available from that shop.
2．it, that, one, those
it 特指前面提到过的同一个人或者物 可以指代前面出现过的不可数名词或单数可
that 数名词，指代单数可数名词相当于 the one。 其复数形式为 those，相当于 the ones 指代前面出现过的那类事物中的“一个”，其
one 复数形式为 ones those 指“the＋名词复数(尤其是有后置定语时)”
I like this house with a beautiful garden in front, but I don't have enough money to buy it.
(2013·辽 宁 高 考 单 选 )To her joy, Della
earned first the trust of her students and then that of her colleagues.
We have various summer camps for your holidays. You can choose one based on your own interests.
Studying Wendy's menu, I found that many of the items are similar to those of McDonald's.
3. other, the other, another, others, the others
不能单独使用，只能修饰名词，表 other 示泛指意义
“另一个”；常与 one 连用，构成 one ...the other ...“一个……另一
可单独使用，也可修饰名词，泛指 三者或三者以上的人或物中的 “另一个”，代替或修饰单数可数 another 名词。另外 another 后可接“基数 词 /few ＋ 复 数 名 词 ” 形 式 ， 表 示 “另外的……(多少)” 单独使用，表示泛指意义，意为 others “其他的人或事物”，常与 some 一起出现 the others 意为“剩余的一些”
Neither side is prepared to talk to the other unless we can smooth things over between them.
(2014·浙江高考阅读 D)I sat on the edge of the street
and watched enviously the other boys on the block play baseball.
Never will they give up the courage to have
another try. 他们从来没有放弃再次尝试的勇气。
Being annoyed with others easily will be harmful to your health, so keep a good?tempered character all the time.
4．none, nothing, no one/nobody
既指人也指物，后面可接 of 短
语，一般用来回答 how many, how
much 和 which 的提问
只指事物，后面不能接 of 短语， 用来回答 what 的提问
只指人不指物，其后不接 语，一般回答 who 的提问
Some people would rather ride bikes as bike riding has none of the troubles of taking buses.
Nothing in the world can delight me so much as having hamburgers in fast food restaurants.
With no one to turn to in such a frightening situation, she felt very helpless.
五、it 的用法 1．指天气、时间、距离、环境等。 It often rains here in summer.(表示天气) 这里夏天经常下雨。
It is twenty miles from here to the village.(表示距离) 从这里到那个村庄有 20 英里路。
—What's in the picture? —It is a cat. ——图画里是什么？ ——是一只猫。 3．当说话者不清楚或没必要知道说话对象的性别 时，也可用 it 来表示。
Someone is knocking at the door. Who can it be? 有人在敲门。有可能是谁呢？
(1)it 作形式主语的常用句型： ①It＋be＋adj./n. (＋for/of sb.)＋不定式
It is important for us to know our limitations. 对于我们来说知道我们的局限性是很重要的。
②It is no good/no use/useless doing sth.
It is no use crying over the spilt milk. 覆水难收。 ③It's (well) worth doing ... ④It＋be＋名词词组(a pity/a fact/no wonder/...)/adj. ＋that 从句
It is a pity that you failed to pass the driving test. 真遗憾你没通过驾照考试。
⑤It ＋ 特 殊 动 词 (seems/appears/turned out/occurred to sb./...)＋that 从句
(2014·陕 西 高 考 任 务 型 阅 读 )Suddenly it
occurred to Majorcans that the island no longer belonged to them.
⑥It＋be＋过去分词＋that 从句 It is reported that a terrible earthquake happened in this area. 据报道，该地区发生了一次可怕的地震。
⑦It＋takes/took＋(sb.) some time/some money to do sth.
It took the baby an hour or so to calm down. 小宝宝闹了大约一小时才平静下来。
(2)it 作形式宾语的常用句型： ①主语＋think/believe/suppose/consider/feel/make/keep ...＋it＋adj./n. (＋for/of sb.)＋to do/that 从句
(2015·江 苏 高 考 写 作 )What's worse, some drivers,
cyclists and pedestrians do not think it vital to obey traffic rules.
②主语＋think/believe/suppose/consider/feel/make /keep ... ＋ it ＋ useless/worth/worthwhile/no use/no good/a waste of time (money/energy ...)＋doing ...
I feel it a waste of time discussing the thing with him. 我觉得和他讨论这件事是在浪费时间。
③主语＋think/believe/suppose/consider/ feel/make/keep ...＋it＋important/necessary/natural/ essential＋that ... (should) do ...
I believe it necessary that you (should) go
over your homework before you hand it in. 我认为你有必要在交作业之前先检查一遍。
5．用于 like, enjoy, hate, love, appreciate 等表示喜 欢、情感的动词以及 depend on/upon, see to 等动词短语 后，再接 when, if, that 等引导的从句。
I'd appreciate it if you would give me the
opportunity. I'm looking forward to your early reply. 如果你给我机会我会感激不尽，盼望你早日答复。
You may depend on it that they will be there in
1．(2015·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)A few hours before, I'd been at home in Hong Kong, with its (it) choking smog.
2．(2015·天津高考单选)The quality of education in this small school is better than thatin some larger schools.
3 ． (2015·福 建 高 考 单 选 )The research group produced two reports based on the survey, but neither contained any useful suggestions.
4．(2015·陕西高考单选)To warm himself, the
sailor sat in front of the fire rubbing one bare foot
against the other ．
5．(2015·四川高考单选)Niki is always full of
ideas, but none is useful to my knowledge.
6．(2015·重庆高考单选)The meeting will be
held in September, but nobody knows the date for
7．(2014·大纲卷单选)—Who's that at the door? — It is the milkman. 8．(2014·辽宁高考语法填空)Raise your leg and let it stay in the air for seconds. 9．(2014·山东高考单选)Susan made it clear to me that she wished to make a new life for herself.
10．(2014·陕西高考单选)I'd appreciate it if
you could let me know in advance whether or not you will come.
11．(2014·福建高考单选 )In some countries,
people eat with chopsticks, while in others , knives and forks.
12．(2014·安徽高考单选)You can ask anyone for help. Everyone here is willing to lend you a hand.
13．(2012·广东高考语法填空)“Do you need those glasses for medical reasons ？ ”The teacher asked ...Then he took them off, gave a big smile and said, “That's cool.”
14．(上海高考单选)If our parents do everything
for us children, we won't learn to depend on ourselves ．
1．(2015·全国卷Ⅰ短文改错)We must find ways to protect your environment. your→our
2．(2015·陕西高考短文改错)My soccer coach retired last week. I wanted to do anything special for him at his retirement party. anything→something
3 ． (2014·陕 西 高 考 短 文 改 错 )My uncles immediately jumped up and shot their arrows at the bird. Neither of the arrows hit the target.
4．We can stay there for a few days and visit
some relatives of me.
5．There is a fact that English is being accepted
as an international language.
6．Some of us carried the apples to the truck,
and other put the baskets onto the truck. other→others
7．We asked John and Jerry, but both of them
could offer a satisfactory explanation. both→neither
8．Some college teachers who teach three classes
consider themselves less successful than that who
teach only one or two, or none in all. that→those
9．There is a No.2 trolley bus and a No.24 bus;
any will take you there.
10．We had to do the washing, cleaning and
shopping by us.
一、基数词的用法 1．表示在某人几十岁时，用“in one's＋逢十的 基数词的复数形式”，如 in his twenties“在他二十几 岁时”，in his thirtie“s 在他三十几岁时”，in his forties “在他四十几岁时”，但“十几岁”不可表示为 tens， 而要说成 teens，指 13 岁至 19 岁。
He looked quite healthy though he was in his
的基数词的复数表示年代，用 early, mid?和 late 分
in the early 1920s/1920's 在 20 世纪 20 年代
in the early twenties
在 20 年代初期
in the mid?eighties
在 80 年代中期
in the late 1980's
在 20 世纪 80 年代
[名师指津] 通常用逢整“十”的 基数词的复数形式来表示某人的大约年 岁或世纪中的年代，与物主代词或冠词 连用，表示年龄时用物主代词 one's，表 示世纪和年代时用定冠词 the。
3．用在 another, all, such 之后，more, other 等之前。
He stayed in China for another ten years. 他又在中国住了十年。
Such a dictionary is enough. 这样一本字典就足够了。
二、序数词的构成和用法 1．序数词的构成：一般在基数词后加-th。注意 以下特殊变化： (1)one→first, two→ second, three → third, five → fifth, eight→eighth, nine→ninth, twelve→twelfth，其中 first, second, third 的缩写形式分别为 1st, 2nd, 3rd。 (2)以 y 结尾的基数词，将 y 改为 i，再加-eth，如： twenty→twentieth, fifty→fiftieth, ninety→ninetieth。
the first lesson＝Lesson 1 第一课
the second part＝Part 2
He cast his net a second time. 他又撒了一次网。 [名师指津] 序数词前加冠词 a/an, the 的意义区别： 序数词前用 the 时，表特指，表次第；序数词前用 a/an 时，表泛指，表示次第在原有基础上的增加。如 a third 含 有“再一”的意思，the third 的意思是“第三个”。如：
I want to eat a third egg. 我想再吃一个鸡蛋。(含有“已经吃了两个”的意思)
I want to eat the third egg. 我想吃第三个鸡蛋。(有可能第一、第二个是别人吃的)
She was (the) third in the exam. 她考试得了第三名。 (3)序数词用作副词时，其前不用冠词。
First come, first served. 先来的先接待。
(4)序数词前已有指示代词、形容词性物主代 词、名词所有格、every 等作定语时，不用定冠词。
I got a beautiful skirt on my fifteenth birthday. 在我 15 岁生日时，我得到了一条漂亮的裙子。 (5)序数词用在由“序数词＋名词”构成的形 容词中时，其前不用定冠词。
There is a five-star hotel over there. 那儿有一家五星级的宾馆。
(6)在一些固定短语中序数词前不加冠词。 at first (起初), at last (最后), first of all (首先，第 一), from first to last (自始至终), at first sight (初次 见面时), second to none (首屈一指的), on second thought(s) (又一想，转念一想)
三、使用数词时应注意的问题 1．表示“增加或减少了……”时，用“by＋ 倍数/百分数”；而表示“增加或减少到……”时， 用“to＋基数词”。
Last year the price of daily necessities went up
by 15 percent. 去年日用品的价格上涨了 15%。
In their school the number of students who have
poor eyesight increases to 400. 在他们学校，近视的学生的数量增加到了 400。
It's a five-minute walk from the library to the
five days' holiday two hours' drive
4．hundred, thousand, million, dozen, score 的用法 (1)当这些词与具体数字连用时，不加复数词尾 -s，后面也不接介词 of。但 score 这个词特殊，其后 可加 of 也可不加 of。
I want three score (of) eggs. 我要 60 个鸡蛋。 (2)当这些词不与具体数字连用，表示不确定的数 目时，其后要加复数词尾-s 及介词 of，才能接名词。 若不接名词，则不加介词 of。
I've read it dozens of times. 我读过它几十次。
(3)当这些词与 a few, several, many 等表示不确 定数的词连用时，带不带复数词尾-s 均可，但是要注 意：若不带复数词尾-s，其后的介词 of 可以省略；若 带复数词尾-s，则其后的介词 of 不能省略。
There I saw several hundreds of foreign guests. ＝There I saw several hundred foreign guests. 在那儿我见到了数百位外宾。
(4)当这些词后面的名词被 the, these, those 等
表示特指的限定词修饰时，或其后接的是 us, them
two dozen of them
five hundred of the workers 这些工人中的五
5 ．“ every ＋ 数 词 ＋ 名 词 ” 表 示 “ 每 / 每 隔……”的用法
(1)“every＋基数词＋可数名词复数”意为 “每……(基数词所表示的数目)，每隔……(基数 词所表示的数目减 1)”。
If I work in the garden, I have to sit down
and rest every five minutes. 如果我在园子里劳动，我每 5 分钟/每隔 4
(2)“every＋序数词＋可数名词单数”意为 “每……(序数词对应的基数词)，每隔……(序数 词对应的基数词减 1)”。
He sees Ann every third week. 他每三周/每隔两周见安一次。
① every ＋ few ＋ 可 数 名 词 复 数 “ 每 隔 几……”(需注意：此处 few 不能用 a few)。
② every ＋ other ＋ 可 数 名 词 单 数 ( ＝ every second＋可数名词单数＝every two＋可数名词复 数)“每两……，每隔一……”。
1．There are hundreds(hundred) of people in the hall. 2．He became a professor in his thirties (thirty)． 3．(2016·成都一模)It was in the 1960s. 4．(2016·太原五中模拟)The second is what I really need. 5．We've tried it three times.Must we try it a fourth time?
6．In the 1870's when Marx was already in his fifties，he found it important to study the situation in Russia, so he began to learn Russian.
1．There were hundred of people on the beach.
2．There I saw several hundreds foreign guests. 在 hundreds 后面加 of
3 ． (2016·云 南 毕 业 班 统 考 )Two hundreds
students went there.
4．The bottle had been about three-quarter full
1． (2016·黄 山 七校联 考 )I've always wanted an iPhone 6 and I've just saved enough money to buy one ．
2．(2016·济南高三模拟)—Can I ask you a few straightforward questions about yourself?
—Sure. I like it when people are open and direct.
3．The cultural background of China is totally different from that of the US.
4．There are two roads leading to the power station along the river. You can take eitherof the roads.
5 ． (2016·辽 宁 省 五 校 协 作 体 高 三 联 考)—Would you like to go shopping with me on Saturday or Sunday?
—I'm sorry. Neither will suit me. I'll be away on business during that period.
6．If none of you is against the plan, we will carry it out immediately.
7．(2016·太原质检)—Will you take these shoes? —No, they don't fit me. Show me some others ． 8．She provided all sorts of services, but none of them met with Harry's requirements.
9． Millions (million) of dollars have gone into the building of this factory.
10．Today is my grandfather's sixtieth(sixty) birthday.
1．(2016·四川德阳诊断)I wonder if you can
tell me something about myself, your family and
2．Please pay more attention to the related
information of the contest and take an active part in
them on time.
3．(2016·海口高三调研)Do you want to know
why we moved last week？Dad lost his job, and as Mom explained, “He was lucky to find other one.”
4．Having been in the city for so a long time, we
were so happy to go to the countryside. 第一个 so→such
5．However, there are problems with this method.
Sometimes we may find difficult to follow the teacher
and some slow learners may even give up learning
find 后加 it
6．My first tour was terrible. The old bus was not
air-conditioned, and it was in the middle of summer, so that
was really uncomfortable to be inside the bus. that→it
7．I sincerely hope you can give us a chance. I'm looking
forward to your early reply.
8 ． (2016·东 北 三 省 四 市 联 考 )I apologized and
controlled me at my best till the dinner started. me→myself
9．Three quarter of the students have passed the exam.
(2016·石 家 庄 高 三 质 检 )What on earth does happiness mean? I can't give you its exact definition, but I'm sure if you love and help 1.others, you'll get it.
I'll never forget an old lady. She lives in 2. a small house alone. It's said that her husband and her son died in a road accident years ago. Her life is bitter, but she often helps others with a smile. Whenever it snows, she is always the 3. first (one) to clean the paths.
She looks after several children living nearby. I am one of them. I often remember the stories she told us and her kind smiles. Perhaps she is unlucky, but I think she is a happy person. Her life is full of laughter and love.
But I'm sad to see some people getting their happiness 4. in bad ways. They talk 5.noisily (noisy) in cinemas and meeting rooms; they destroy trees to enjoy 6.themselves and they laugh at others' shortcomings. Perhaps they feel happy at that time, 7. but they will never get true happiness because they 8.have lost (lose) their personality already.
Now I know what happiness is. 9. It means kindness, love and unselfishness. Above all, I have come to understand that 10.bringing (bring) happiness to others is making ourselves happy.
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